JavaScript modules

Published · Tagged with ECMAScript ES2015

JavaScript modules are now supported in all major browsers!

This article explains how to use JS modules, how to deploy them responsibly, and how the Chrome team is working to make modules even better in the future.

What are JS modules? #

JS modules (also known as “ES modules” or “ECMAScript modules”) are a major new feature, or rather a collection of new features. You may have used a userland JavaScript module system in the past. Maybe you used CommonJS like in Node.js, or maybe AMD, or maybe something else. All of these module systems have one thing in common: they allow you to import and export stuff.

JavaScript now has standardized syntax for exactly that. Within a module, you can use the export keyword to export just about anything. You can export a const, a function, or any other variable binding or declaration. Just prefix the variable statement or declaration with export and you’re all set:

// 📁 lib.mjs
export const repeat = (string) => `${string} ${string}`;
export function shout(string) {
return `${string.toUpperCase()}!`;

You can then use the import keyword to import the module from another module. Here, we’re importing the repeat and shout functionality from the lib module, and using it in our main module:

// 📁 main.mjs
import {repeat, shout} from './lib.mjs';
// → 'hello hello'
shout('Modules in action');

You could also export a default value from a module:

// 📁 lib.mjs
export default function(string) {
return `${string.toUpperCase()}!`;

Such default exports can be imported using any name:

// 📁 main.mjs
import shout from './lib.mjs';
// ^^^^^

Modules are a little different from classic scripts:

  • Modules have strict mode enabled by default.

  • HTML-style comment syntax is not supported in modules, although it works in classic scripts.

    // Don’t use HTML-style comment syntax in JavaScript!
    const x = 42; <!-- TODO: Rename x to y.
    // Use a regular single-line comment instead:
    const x = 42; // TODO: Rename x to y.
  • Modules have a lexical top-level scope. This means that for example, running var foo = 42; within a module does not create a global variable named foo, accessible through in a browser, although that would be the case in a classic script.

  • Similarly, the this within modules does not refer to the global this, and instead is undefined. (Use globalThis if you need access to the global this.)

  • The new static import and export syntax is only available within modules — it doesn’t work in classic scripts.

  • Top-level await is available in modules, but not in classic scripts. Relatedly, await cannot be used as a variable name anywhere in a module, although variables in classic scripts can be named await outside of async functions.

Because of these differences, the same JavaScript code might behave differently when treated as a module vs. a classic script. As such, the JavaScript runtime needs to know which scripts are modules.

Using JS modules in the browser #

On the web, you can tell browsers to treat a <script> element as a module by setting the type attribute to module.

<script type="module" src="main.mjs"></script>
<script nomodule src="fallback.js"></script>

Browsers that understand type="module" ignore scripts with a nomodule attribute. This means you can serve a module-based payload to module-supporting browsers while providing a fallback to other browsers. The ability to make this distinction is amazing, if only for performance! Think about it: only modern browsers support modules. If a browser understands your module code, it also supports features that were around before modules, such as arrow functions or async-await. You don’t have to transpile those features in your module bundle anymore! You can serve smaller and largely untranspiled module-based payloads to modern browsers. Only legacy browsers get the nomodule payload.

Since modules are deferred by default, you may want to load the nomodule script in a deferred fashion as well:

<script type="module" src="main.mjs"></script>
<script nomodule defer src="fallback.js"></script>

Browser-specific differences between modules and classic scripts #

As you now know, modules are different from classic scripts. On top of the platform-agnostic differences we’ve outlined above, there are some differences that are specific to browsers.

For example, modules are evaluated only once, while classic scripts are evaluated however many times you add them to the DOM.

<script src="classic.js"></script>
<script src="classic.js"></script>
<!-- classic.js executes multiple times. -->

<script type="module" src="module.mjs"></script>
<script type="module" src="module.mjs"></script>
<script type="module">import './module.mjs';</script>
<!-- module.mjs executes only once. -->

Also, module scripts and their dependencies are fetched with CORS. This means that any cross-origin module scripts must be served with the proper headers, such as Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *. This is not true for classic scripts.

Another difference relates to the async attribute, which causes the script to download without blocking the HTML parser (like defer) except it also executes the script as soon as possible, with no guaranteed order, and without waiting for HTML parsing to finish. The async attribute does not work for inline classic scripts, but it does work for inline <script type="module">.

A note on file extensions #

You may have noticed we’re using the .mjs file extension for modules. On the Web, the file extension doesn’t really matter, as long as the file is served with the JavaScript MIME type text/javascript. The browser knows it’s a module because of the type attribute on the script element.

Still, we recommend using the .mjs extension for modules, for two reasons:

  1. During development, the .mjs extension makes it crystal clear to you and anyone else looking at your project that the file is a module as opposed to a classic script. (It’s not always possible to tell just by looking at the code.) As mentioned before, modules are treated differently than classic scripts, so the difference is hugely important!
  2. It ensures that your file is parsed as a module by runtimes such as Node.js and d8, and build tools such as Babel. While these environments and tools each have proprietary ways via configuration to interpret files with other extensions as modules, the .mjs extension is the cross-compatible way to ensure that files are treated as modules.

Note: To deploy .mjs on the web, your web server needs to be configured to serve files with this extension using the appropriate Content-Type: text/javascript header, as mentioned above. Additionally, you may want to configure your editor to treat .mjs files as .js files to get syntax highlighting. Most modern editors already do this by default.

Module specifiers #

When importing modules, the string that specifies the location of the module is called the “module specifier” or the “import specifier”. In our earlier example, the module specifier is './lib.mjs':

import {shout} from './lib.mjs';
// ^^^^^^^^^^^

Some restrictions apply to module specifiers in browsers. So-called “bare” module specifiers are currently not supported. This restriction is specified so that in the future, browsers can allow custom module loaders to give special meaning to bare module specifiers like the following:

// Not supported (yet):
import {shout} from 'jquery';
import {shout} from 'lib.mjs';
import {shout} from 'modules/lib.mjs';

On the other hand, the following examples are all supported:

// Supported:
import {shout} from './lib.mjs';
import {shout} from '../lib.mjs';
import {shout} from '/modules/lib.mjs';
import {shout} from 'https://simple.example/modules/lib.mjs';

For now, module specifiers must be full URLs, or relative URLs starting with /, ./, or ../.

Modules are deferred by default #

Classic <script>s block the HTML parser by default. You can work around it by adding the defer attribute, which ensures that the script download happens in parallel with HTML parsing.

Module scripts are deferred by default. As such, there is no need to add defer to your <script type="module"> tags! Not only does the download for the main module happen in parallel with HTML parsing, the same goes for all the dependency modules!

Other module features #

Dynamic import() #

So far we’ve only used static import. With static import, your entire module graph needs to be downloaded and executed before your main code can run. Sometimes, you don’t want to load a module up-front, but rather on-demand, only when you need it — when the user clicks a link or a button, for example. This improves the initial load-time performance. Dynamic import() makes this possible!

<script type="module">
(async () => {
const moduleSpecifier = './lib.mjs';
const {repeat, shout} = await import(moduleSpecifier);
// → 'hello hello'
shout('Dynamic import in action');

Unlike static import, dynamic import() can be used from within regular scripts. It’s an easy way to incrementally start using modules in your existing code base. For more details, see our article on dynamic import().

Note: webpack has its own version of import() that cleverly splits the imported module into its own chunk, separate from the main bundle.

import.meta #

Another new module-related feature is import.meta, which gives you metadata about the current module. The exact metadata you get is not specified as part of ECMAScript; it depends on the host environment. In a browser, you might get different metadata than in Node.js, for example.

Here’s an example of import.meta on the web. By default, images are loaded relative to the current URL in HTML documents. import.meta.url makes it possible to load an image relative to the current module instead.

function loadThumbnail(relativePath) {
const url = new URL(relativePath, import.meta.url);
const image = new Image();
image.src = url;
return image;

const thumbnail = loadThumbnail('../img/thumbnail.png');

Performance recommendations #

Keep bundling #

With modules, it becomes possible to develop websites without using bundlers such as webpack, Rollup, or Parcel. It’s fine to use native JS modules directly in the following scenarios:

  • during local development
  • in production for small web apps with less than 100 modules in total and with a relatively shallow dependency tree (i.e. a maximum depth less than 5)

However, as we learned during our bottleneck analysis of Chrome’s loading pipeline when loading a modularized library composed of ~300 modules, the loading performance of bundled applications is better than unbundled ones.

One reason for this is that the static import/export syntax is statically analyzable, and it can thus help bundler tools optimize your code by eliminating unused exports. Static import and export are more than just syntax; they are a critical tooling feature!

Our general recommendation is to continue using bundlers before deploying modules to production. In a way, bundling is a similar optimization to minifying your code: it results in a performance benefit, because you end up shipping less code. Bundling has the same effect! Keep bundling.

As always, the DevTools Code Coverage feature can help you identify if you are pushing unnecessary code to users. We also recommend the use of code splitting to split bundles and to defer loading of non-First-Meaningful-Paint critical scripts.

Trade-offs of bundling vs. shipping unbundled modules #

As usual in web development, everything is a trade-off. Shipping unbundled modules might decrease initial load performance (cold cache), but could actually improve load performance for subsequent visits (warm cache) compared to shipping a single bundle without code splitting. For a 200 KB code base, changing a single fine-grained module and having that be the only fetch from the server for subsequent visits is way better than having to re-fetch the whole bundle.

If you’re more concerned with the experience of visitors with warm caches than first-visit performance and have a site with less than a few hundred fine-grained modules, you could experiment with shipping unbundled modules, measure the performance impact for both cold and warm loads, and then make a data-driven decision!

Browser engineers are working hard on improving the performance of modules out-of-the-box. Over time, we expect shipping unbundled modules to become feasible in more situations.

Use fine-grained modules #

Get into the habit of writing your code using small, fine-grained modules. During development, it’s generally better to have just a few exports per module than it is to manually combine lots of exports into a single file.

Consider a module named ./util.mjs that exports three functions named drop, pluck, and zip:

export function drop() { /* … */ }
export function pluck() { /* … */ }
export function zip() { /* … */ }

If your code base only really needs the pluck functionality, you’d probably import it as follows:

import {pluck} from './util.mjs';

In this case, (without a build-time bundling step) the browser still ends up having to download, parse, and compile the entire ./util.mjs module even though it only really needs that one export. That’s wasteful!

If pluck doesn’t share any code with drop and zip, it’d be better to move it to its own fine-grained module, e.g. ./pluck.mjs.

export function pluck() { /* … */ }

We can then import pluck without the overhead of dealing with drop and zip:

import {pluck} from './pluck.mjs';

Note: You could use a default export instead of a named export here, depending on your personal preference.

Not only does this keep your source code nice and simple, it also reduces the need for dead-code elimination as performed by bundlers. If one of the modules in your source tree is unused, then it never gets imported, and so the browser never downloads it. The modules that do get used can be individually code-cached by the browser. (The infrastructure to make this happen already landed in V8, and work is underway to enable it in Chrome as well.)

Using small, fine-grained modules helps prepare your code base for the future where a native bundling solution might be available.

Preload modules #

You can optimize the delivery of your modules further by using <link rel="modulepreload">. This way, browsers can preload and even preparse and precompile modules and their dependencies.

<link rel="modulepreload" href="lib.mjs">
<link rel="modulepreload" href="main.mjs">
<script type="module" src="main.mjs"></script>
<script nomodule src="fallback.js"></script>

This is especially important for larger dependency trees. Without rel="modulepreload", the browser needs to perform multiple HTTP requests to figure out the full dependency tree. However, if you declare the full list of dependent module scripts with rel="modulepreload", the browser doesn’t have to discover these dependencies progressively.

Use HTTP/2 #

Using HTTP/2 where possible is always good performance advice, if only for its multiplexing support. With HTTP/2 multiplexing, multiple request and response messages can be in flight at the same time, which is beneficial for loading module trees.

The Chrome team investigated if another HTTP/2 feature, specifically HTTP/2 server push, could be a practical solution for deploying highly-modularized apps. Unfortunately, HTTP/2 server push is tricky to get right, and web servers’ and browsers’ implementations are not currently optimized towards highly-modularized web app use cases. It’s hard to only push the resources that the user doesn’t already have cached, for example, and solving that by communicating the entire cache state of an origin to the server is a privacy risk.

So by all means, go ahead and use HTTP/2! Just keep in mind that HTTP/2 server push is (unfortunately) not a silver bullet.

Web adoption of JS modules #

JS modules are slowly gaining adoption on the web. Our usage counters show that 0.08% of all page loads currently use <script type="module">. Note that this number excludes other entry points such as dynamic import() or worklets.

What’s next for JS modules? #

The Chrome team is working on improving the development-time experience with JS modules in various ways. Let’s discuss some of them.

Faster and deterministic module resolution algorithm #

We proposed a change to the module resolution algorithm that addressed a deficiency in speed and determinism. The new algorithm is now live in both the HTML specification and the ECMAScript specification, and is implemented in Chrome 63. Expect this improvement to land in more browsers soon!

The new algorithm is much more efficient and faster. The computational complexity of the old algorithm was quadratic, i.e. 𝒪(n²), in the size of the dependency graph, and so was Chrome’s implementation at the time. The new algorithm is linear, i.e. 𝒪(n).

Moreover, the new algorithm reports resolution errors in a deterministic way. Given a graph containing multiple errors, different runs of the old algorithm could report different errors as being responsible for the resolution failure. This made debugging unnecessarily difficult. The new algorithm is guaranteed to report the same error every time.

Worklets and web workers #

Chrome now implements worklets, which allow web developers to customize hard-coded logic in the “low-level parts” of web browsers. With worklets, web developers can feed an JS module into the rendering pipeline or the audio processing pipeline (and possibly more pipelines in the future!).

Chrome 65 supports PaintWorklet (a.k.a. the CSS Paint API) to control how a DOM element is painted.

const result = await css.paintWorklet.addModule('paint-worklet.mjs');

Chrome 66 supports AudioWorklet, which allows you to control audio processing with your own code. The same Chrome version started an OriginTrial for AnimationWorklet, which enables creating scroll-linked and other high-performance procedural animations.

Finally, LayoutWorklet (a.k.a. the CSS Layout API) is now implemented in Chrome 67.

We’re working on adding support for using JS modules with dedicated web workers in Chrome. You can already try this feature with chrome://flags/#enable-experimental-web-platform-features enabled.

const worker = new Worker('worker.mjs', { type: 'module' });

JS module support for shared workers and service workers is coming soon:

const worker = new SharedWorker('worker.mjs', { type: 'module' });
const registration = await navigator.serviceWorker.register('worker.mjs', { type: 'module' });

Import maps #

In Node.js/npm, it’s common to import JS modules by their “package name”. For example:

import moment from 'moment';
import {pluck} from 'lodash-es';

Currently, per the HTML spec, such “bare import specifiers” throw an exception. Our import maps proposal allows such code to work on the web, including in production apps. An import map is a JSON resource that helps the browser convert bare import specifiers into full URLs.

Import maps are still in the proposal stage. Although we’ve thought a lot about how they address various use cases, we’re still engaging with the community, and haven’t yet written up a full specification. Feedback is welcome!

Web packaging: native bundles #

The Chrome loading team is currently exploring a native web packaging format as a new way to distribute web apps. The core features of web packaging are:

Signed HTTP Exchanges that allow a browser to trust that a single HTTP request/response pair was generated by the origin it claims; Bundled HTTP Exchanges, that is, a collection of exchanges, each of which could be signed or unsigned, with some metadata describing how to interpret the bundle as a whole.

Combined, such a web packaging format would enable multiple same-origin resources to be securely embedded in a single HTTP GET response.

Existing bundling tools such as webpack, Rollup, or Parcel currently emit a single JavaScript bundle, in which the semantics of the original separate modules and assets are lost. With native bundles, browsers could unbundle the resources back to their original form. In simplified terms, you can imagine a Bundled HTTP Exchange as a bundle of resources that can be accessed in any order via a table of contents (manifest), and where the contained resources can be efficiently stored and labeled according to their relative importance, all while maintaining the notion of individual files. Because of this, native bundles could improve the debugging experience. When viewing assets in the DevTools, browsers could pinpoint the original module without the need for complex source-maps.

The native bundle format’s transparency opens up various optimization opportunities. For example, if a browser already has part of a native bundle cached locally, it could communicate that to the web server and then only download the missing parts.

Chrome already supports a part of the proposal (SignedExchanges), but the bundling format itself as well as its application to highly-modularized apps are still in exploratory phase. Your feedback is highly welcome on the repository or via email to!

Layered APIs #

Shipping new features and web APIs incurs an ongoing maintenance and runtime cost — every new feature pollutes the browser namespace, increases startup costs, and represents a new surface to introduce bugs throughout the codebase. Layered APIs are an effort to implement and ship higher-level APIs with web browsers in a more scalable way. JS modules are a key enabling technology for layered APIs:

  • Since modules are explicitly imported, requiring layered APIs to be exposed via modules ensures that developers only pay for the layered APIs they use.
  • Because module loading is configurable, layered APIs can have a built-in mechanism for automatically loading polyfills in browsers that don’t support layered APIs.

The details of how modules and layered APIs work together are still being worked out, but the current proposal looks something like this:


The <script> element loads the virtual-scroller API either from the browser’s built-in set of layered APIs (std:virtual-scroller) or from a fallback URL pointing to a polyfill. This API can do anything JS modules can do in web browsers. One example would be defining a custom <virtual-scroller> element, so that the following HTML is progressively enhanced as desired:

<!-- Content goes here. -->

Credits #

Thanks to Domenic Denicola, Georg Neis, Hiroki Nakagawa, Hiroshige Hayashizaki, Jakob Gruber, Kouhei Ueno, Kunihiko Sakamoto, and Yang Guo for making JavaScript modules fast!

Also, kudos to Eric Bidelman, Jake Archibald, Jason Miller, Jeffrey Posnick, Philip Walton, Rob Dodson, Sam Dutton, Sam Thorogood, and Thomas Steiner for reading a draft version of this guide and giving their feedback.