Untrusted code mitigations

In early 2018, researchers from Google’s Project Zero disclosed a new class of attacks which exploit speculative execution optimizations used by many CPUs. Because V8 uses an optimizing JIT compiler, TurboFan, to make JavaScript run quickly, in certain circumstances it is vulnerable to the side-channel attacks described in the disclosure.

Nothing changes if you execute only trustworthy code #

If your product only uses an embedded instance of V8 to execute JavaScript or WebAssembly code that is entirely under your control, then your usage of V8 is likely unaffected by the Speculative Side-Channel Attacks (SSCA) vulnerability. A Node.js instance running only code that you trust is one such unaffected example.

In order to take advantage of the vulnerability, an attacker has to execute carefully crafted JavaScript or WebAssembly code in your embedded environment. If, as a developer, you have complete control over the code executed in your embedded V8 instance, then that is very unlikely to be possible. However, if your embedded V8 instance allows arbitrary or otherwise untrustworthy JavaScript or WebAssembly code to be downloaded and executed, or even generates and subsequently executes JavaScript or WebAssembly code that isn’t fully under your control (e.g. if it uses either as a compilation target), you may need to consider mitigations.

If you do execute untrusted code… #

Update to the latest V8 to benefit from mitigations and enable mitigations #

Mitigations for this class of attack are available in V8 itself starting with V8 v6.4.388.18, so updating your embedded copy of V8 to v6.4.388.18 or later is advised. Older versions of V8, including versions of V8 that still use FullCodeGen and/or CrankShaft, do not have mitigations for SSCA.

Starting in V8 v6.4.388.18, a new flag has been introduced to V8 to help provide protection against SSCA vulnerabilities. This flag, called --untrusted-code-mitigations, is enabled by default at runtime through a build-time GN flag called v8_untrusted_code_mitigations.

These mitigations are enabled by the --untrusted-code-mitigations runtime flag:

Embedders should be aware that the mitigations may come with a performance trade-off. The actual impact depends significantly on your workload. For workloads such as Speedometer the impact is negligible but for more extreme computational workloads it can be as much as 15%. If you fully trust the JavaScript and WebAssembly code that your embedded V8 instance executes, you may choose to disable these JIT mitigations by specifying the flag --no-untrusted-code-mitigations at runtime. The v8_untrusted_code_mitigations GN flag can be used to enable or disable the mitigations at build time.

Note that V8 defaults to disabling these mitigations on platforms where it is assumed the embedder will use process isolation, such as platforms where Chromium uses site isolation.

Sandbox untrusted execution in a separate process #

If you execute untrusted JavaScript and WebAssembly code in a separate process from any sensitive data, the potential impact of SSCA is greatly reduced. Through process isolation, SSCA attacks are only able to observe data that is sandboxed inside the same process along with the executing code, and not data from other processes.

Consider tuning your offered high-precision timers #

A high-precision timer makes it easier to observe side channels in the SSCA vulnerability. If your product offers high-precision timers that can be accessed by untrusted JavaScript or WebAssembly code, consider making these timers more coarse or adding jitter to them.